The purpose of a general classification is to identify different types of agroforestry and to group those that are similar, thereby facilitating communication and the organized storage of information. ICAR, New Delhi, International Council for Research in Agroforestry (1983a) A Global Inventory of Agroforestry Systems: A Project Announcement. CIAT, Cali, Colombia, Heuveldop J and Lagemann J (eds) (1981)Agroforestry: Proc of a seminar held at CATIE, 23 February-3 March, 1981. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin (West), Nair PKR (1983a) Some promising agroforestry technologies for hilly and semi-arid regions of Rwanda. In: Schirmer A (ed) The Role of Agroforestry in the Pacific, pp 53–70. Agroforestry systems 2:145–163, National Academy of Sciences (1980) Foreword Crops: Shrubs and Trees for Energy Production. This is actually the crux of the matter. Prepared for the Office of Technology Assessment of the United States Congress. EPRS | European Parliamentary Research Service . gives a brief description of each practice before describing the components which are present, e.g. Ecological classification 28 3.4. The AF Systems Inventory (AFSI) being undertaken by ICRAF provides the background information for an approach to classification. ICRAF/BAT, Nairobi, Huxley PA (1983) Comments of agroforestry classification with special reference to plants. Univ California, Berkely, California (AID/afr C-1361; mimeo), Fernandes ECM, O'Kting'ati A and Maghembe J (1984) The Chagga home-gardens: a multi-storied agroforestry cropping system in Mt. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, de Wit CT and J Goudrian (1974) Simulation of Ecological Processes. In: Chang J (ed) Report of a Seminar on Agricultural Research in Rwanda: Assessment and Perspectives, pp 93–99. Agroforestry Systems 2:199–214, Food and Agriculture Organization (1981a) Agroforesterie Africaine. agroforestry and more sha de-tolerant than the open-field crops that replaced them. Agroforestry Systems 2:198–197, Getahun A, Wilson GF and Kang BT (1982) The role of trees in the farming systems in the humid tropics. There are three main types of agroforestry systems: Agrisilvicultural systems are a combination of crops and trees, such as alley cropping or homegardens. Agro silvicultural . Functional basis refers to the main output and role of components, especially the woody ones. Box 30677, Nairobi, Kenya, You can also search for this author in volume 3, pages97–128(1985)Cite this article. Hence on the basis of structure agroforestry system can be grouped into two categories. Pub. The most commonly used ones are the system's structure (composition and arrangement of components), its function, its socio-economic scale and level of management, and its ecological spread. Oxford and IBH Pub Co, New Delhi, Ssekabembe C (1985) Perspectives of hedgrow intercropping. On an ecological basis, systems can be grouped for any defined agro-ecological zone such as lowland humid tropics, arid and semi-arid tropics, tropical highlands, and so on. Several criteria can be used to classify and group AF systems (and practices). The words 'system', 'sub-system' and 'practice' are commonly used in AF literature. 2 . A new scheme is proposed that uses the ‘practice’ rather than the ‘system’ as the unit of classification. Centre for Agric Pub Docum, Wageningen, The Netherlands, Editors (1982) What is agroforestry? refers to the composition of the components, including spatial arrangement of the woody component, vertical stratification of all the components, and temporal arrangement of the different components. East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, Little EL (1983) Common Fuelwood Crops: A Handbook for their Identification. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 26:38–47, Sheikh MI and Khalique A (1982) Effect of tree belts on the yield of agricultural crops. Classification of agroforestry systems. There are 11 chapters by various authors. The socio-economic scale of production and level of management of the system can be used as the criteria to designate systems as commercial, ‘intermediate’, or subsistence. Agroforest Syst 3, 97–128 (1985). Agroforestry Systems 2:273–279, Buck L (ed) (1981) Proceedings of the Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry. This study identifies the agroforestry techniques used in the West Mediterranean region and which classification system should be employed in determining the region’s agroforestry production potential. Report of the Special Consultant. In: Nestel B (ed) Agricultural Research for Development: Potentials and Challenges in Asia, pp 37–49. Agroforestry systems and practices 32 References 35 4. Other specialized AF systems such as apiculture with trees, aquaculture in mangrove areas, multipurpose tree lots, and so on, can also be specified. SEARCA, College, Laguna, The Philippines, Arnold GW and de Wit CT (eds) (1976) Critical Evaluation of Systems Analysis in Ecosystem Research and Management. 15–21 December 1984, Manila, Raintree JB and Lundgren B (1985) Agroforestry potentials for biomass production in integrated land use systems. Working Paper. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Classification of agroforestry systems 21 3.1. In: Huxley PA (ed) Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 161–171. Classification of agroforestry (AF) systems is necessary in order to provide a framework for evaluating systems and developing action plans for their improvement. PDF | On Nov 7, 2013, RP Gunaga and others published Agroforestry: A land use system for conservation of plant genetic resources | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate German Foundation for Internatioal Development (DSE), Eschborn, W Germany, Seif-el-Din AG (1981) Agroforestry practices in the dry regions. 5. Presented at the Workshop on Biomass Energy Systems: Building Blocks for Sustainable Agriculture. Docum., Wageningen, The Netherlands, Atmosoedaryo S and Wijayakusumah K (1979) Ecological aspects of agroforestry in the lowland humid tropics: Southeast Asia. Other specialized AF systems such as apiculture with trees, aquaculture in mangrove areas, multipurpose tree lots, and so on, can also be specified. ICRAF, Nairobi, von Maydell H-J (1984) Agroforestry Systems and Practices in the Arid and Semi-Arid Parts of Africa. In: Chandler T and Spurgeon D (eds) International Cooperation in Agroforestry, pp 161–168. The peculiar history of agroforestry and the complex relationships between agriculture and forestry explain some misunderstandings about the concepts and classification of agroforestry and reveal that, contrarily to common perception, agroforestry is closer to agriculture than to forestry. Agroforestry Systems 1:7–12, Evans PT and Rombold JS (1984) Paraiso (Melia azedarach var. ICRAF, Nairobi, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (1979) Proceedings of the National Seminar on Agroforestry, May 1979. In common parlance, however, these terms are used loosely, and almost synonymously. ICRAF, Niarobi (unpublished), Johnson DV and Nair PKR (1984) Perennial crop-based agroforestry systems in northeast Brazil. Indonesia and Department of Forest Management, University of Wageningen, The Netherlands, Wiersum, KF (1982) Tree gardening and taungya in Java: examples of agroforestry techniques in the humid tropics. Some of the major AF systems and practices of the tropics are grouped according to such a framework. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Agroforestry Systems 2:87–102, Bourke RM (1984) Food, coffee and Casuarina: an agroforestry system from the Papua New Guinea highlands. In: MacDonald LH (ed) Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics, pp 52–55. Classification of major types of agroforestry practice proceeds primarily according to the components involved and the predominant usage of land. In: Nestel B (ed) Agricultural Research for Development: Potentials and Challenges in Asia, pp 37–49. Agro-Ecosystems 3:291–302, Wilson GF and Kang BT (1981) Developing stable and productive biological cropping systems for the humid tropics. Some of the major AF systems and practices of the tropics are grouped according to such a framework. Arrangement of components can be in time (temporal) or space (spatial) and several terms are used to denote the various arrangements. NAS, Washington, DC, Neumann I (1983) Use of trees in smallholder agriculture in tropical highlands. woody perennials, herbaceous plants and animals, a logical first step is to classify AF systems based on their component composition, into agrisilvicultural, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral (or any other specialized) systems. Silvopastoral systems combine forestry and grazing of domesticated animals on pastures, rangelands or on-farm. Agroforestry Systems (in press), Ambar S (1982) Overview of the results of tradition alagroforestry study in Ci-Tarum river basin, West Java. CATIE, Costa Rica, de las Salas G (ed) (1979) Proceedings of the Workshop on Agroforestry Systems in Latin America. In: Stonehouse B (ed) A Scientific Approach to Organic Farming, pp 193–203. Abstract. ICRAF/BAT, Nairobi, Huxley PA (1983) Comments of agroforestry classification with special reference to plants. Agroforestry: Overview and definitions . Agroforestry Systems (in press), Ambar S (1982) Overview of the results of tradition alagroforestry study in Ci-Tarum river basin, West Java. Part of Springer Nature. ICRAF/Univ Nairobi, Nairobi, Chandler T and Spurgeon D (eds) (1979) International Cooperation in Agroforestry. The AF Systems Inventory (AFSI) being undertaken by ICRAF provides the background information for an approach to classification. Swiss Devpt Corp, Berne, and Swiss Federal Inst of Forestry Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland, Pollisco F (1979) National, bilateral and multilateral agroforestry projects in Asia. On an ecological basis, systems can be grouped for any defined agro-ecological zone such as lowland humid tropics, arid and semi-arid tropics, tropical highlands, and so on. ISNAR, The Hague, Nair PKR (1983b) Agroforestry with coconuts and other tropical plantation crops. Nevertheless since there are only three basic sets of components that are managed by man in all AF Systems, viz. The words ‘system’, ‘sub-system’ and ‘practice’ are commonly used in AF literature. Agroforestry Systems 2:165–176, Kundstadter P, Chapman EC and Sabhasri S (eds) (1978) Farmers in the Forest: Economic Development and Marginal Agriculture in Northern Thailand. According to Nair:-(1987), Agroforestry system is classified according to the following sets of cretrias:-1. ICRAF, Nairobi, Combe J and Budowski G (1979) Classifiacation of agroforestry techniques. In: Chandler T and Spurgeon D (eds) International Cooperation in Agroforestry, pp 161–168. Each of these criteria has merits and applicability in specific situations, but they have limitations too so that no single classification scheme can be accepted as universally applicable. SEARCA, College, Laguna, The Philippines, Arnold GW and de Wit CT (eds) (1976) Critical Evaluation of Systems Analysis in Ecosystem Research and Management. Distribution of agroforestry systems in the tropics 39 4.1. FAO, Rome, Felker P (1978) State of the Art: Acacia albida as a Complementary Intercop with Annual Crops. 1) Agroforestry is any sustainable land-use system that maintains or increases total yields by combining food crops (annuals) with tree crops (perennials) and/or livestock on the same unit of land, either alternately or at the same time, using management practices that suit the social and cultural characteristics of the local people and the economic and eco­logical conditions of the area. In: Chandler T and Spurgeon D (eds) International Cooperation in Agroforestry, pp. Agroforestry Systems 1: 269–273, International Council for Research in Agroforestry (1983b) Draft guidelines for agroforestry diagnosis and design. A system type is defined as a homogenous group whose major components are closely related economically, socially, and environmentally. Several criteria can be used in classifying them, but the most common include the […] https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00122638, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in CIAT, Cali, Colombia, Heuveldop J and Lagemann J (eds) (1981)Agroforestry: Proc of a seminar held at CATIE, 23 February-3 March, 1981. In: Schirmer A (ed) The Role of Agroforestry in the Pacific, pp 53–70. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. A framework for classification 31 3.6. Agroforestry Systems (in press), Stewart PJ (1981) Forestry, agriculture and land husbandry. Centre for Agric. ISNAR, The Hague, McDonald LH (ed) (1982) Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics. In: Chandler T and Spurgeon D (eds) International Cooperation in Agroforestry, pp 15–29. A worldwide traditional practice . ICRAF, Nairobi, Nair PKR (1983c) Tree integration on farmlands for sustained productivity of smallholdings. Report of the Special Consultant, ICRAF, Nairobi (unpublished), Wiersum KF (1980) Observations on agroforestry in Java, Indonesia. An AF system refers to a type of AF land-use that extends over a locality to the extent of forming a land utilization type of the locality. Praeger, New York, Panday K (1982) Fodder Trees and Tree fodder in Nepal. In: Stonehouse B (ed) A Scientific Approach to Organic Farming, pp 193–203. Classification of agroforestry (AF) systems is necessary in order to provide a framework for evaluating systems and developing action plans for their improvement. In: MacDonald LH (ed) Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics, pp 28–35. Each of these criteria has merits and applicability in specific situations, but they have limitations too so that no single classification scheme can be accepted as universally applicable. John Wiley, Chichester, England (in press), Nair PKR (1985b) Fruit Trees in Agroforestry. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, Hoekstra DA and Kuguru FM (eds) (1982) Agroforestry Systems for Small-Scale Farmers. Classification of agroforestry (AF) systems is necessary in order to provide a framework for evaluating systems and developing action plans for their improvement. These can be productive functions (production of ‘basic needs’ such as food, fodder, fuelwood, other products, etc.) Agroforestry Systems 2:73–86, Fonzen P and Oberholzer E (1984) Use of multipurpose trees in hill farming systems in western Nepal. In: Chang J (ed) Report of a Seminar on Agricultural Research in Rwanda: Assessment and Perspectives, pp 93–99. ); Classification of agroforestry systems (Nair, P.K.R volume 3, pages97–128(1985)Cite this article. Agroforestry Systems 2:198–197, Getahun A, Wilson GF and Kang BT (1982) The role of trees in the farming systems in the humid tropics. Sub-system and practice are lower-order terms in the hierarchy with lesser magnitudes of role, content and complexity. Part of Springer Nature. In: Hoekstra DA and Kuguru FM (eds) Agroforestry Systems for Small-scale Farmers, pp 27–42 ICRAF/BAT, Nairobi, Vergara NT (1981) Integral agroforestry: a potential strategy for stabilizing shifting cultivation and sustaining productivity of the natural environment. Classification of agroforestry systems by P. K. R. Nair, 1985, International Council for Research in Agroforestry edition, in English The AF Systems Inventory (AFSI) being undertaken by ICRAF provides the background information for an approach to classification. Centre for Agric. Indonesia and Department of Forest Management, University of Wageningen, The Netherlands, Wiersum, KF (1982) Tree gardening and taungya in Java: examples of agroforestry techniques in the humid tropics. Classification of major types of agroforestry practice proceeds primarily according to the components involved and the predominant usage of land. Classification of Agro-forestry System Different types of Agroforestry systems exist in different parts of the world. Agroforestry Systems (in press), Stewart PJ (1981) Forestry, agriculture and land husbandry. Kilimanjaro, N. Tanzania. Classification will depend upon the purpose for which it is intended. Classification will depend upon the purpose for which it is intended. Environment and Policy Inst, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, Nair PKR, Fernandes ECM and Wambugu PN (1984) Multipurpose leguminous trees and shrubs for agroforestry. Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, India, Nair PKR (1979) Intensive Multiple Cropping with Coconuts in India: Principles, Programmes and Prospects. Intern Tree Crops J 1:3–14, Hecht SB (ed) (1982) Amazonia: Agriculture and Land Use Research. Report of the Special Consultant, ICRAF, Nairobi (unpublished), Wiersum KF (1980) Observations on agroforestry in Java, Indonesia. Working Paper Environment and Policy Inst, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, von Maydell H-J (1979) The development of agroforestry in the Sehelian zone of Africa. and protective roles (soilconservation, soil fertility improvement, protection offered by windbreaks and shelterbelts, and so on). CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, Hoekstra DA and Kuguru FM (eds) (1982) Agroforestry Systems for Small-Scale Farmers. A collection of current information on agroforestry and agroforestry systems in most of the major agroecological zones of the world, which also covers important issues of design, economics, research and extension. Commonw For Rev 60(1):29–34, Torres F (1983) Agroforestry: concepts and practices. Proceedings of ICRAF/DSE Conference. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASIS refers to scales of production, level of technology, inputs, and management as the basis for classification. Functional basis refers to the main output and role of components, especially the woody ones. The resulting system name can thus have any one of the three basic categories as a prefix; for example agrisilvicultural system for soil conservation. World Resources Inst 29 Jan–1 Feb. 1985, Richardson SD (1984) Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands. Prepared for the Office of Technology Assessment of the United States Congress. Classification of Agroforestry System on Structural Basis The structural of a system can be defined in terms of its components and the expected role or function of each. Agroforestry Systems 2:199–214, Food and Agriculture Organization (1981a) Agroforesterie Africaine. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, de Wit CT and J Goudrian (1974) Simulation of Ecological Processes. An AF system refers to a type of AF land-use that extends over a locality to the extent of forming a land utilization type of the locality. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 32:21–23, Singh RV (1982) Fodder Trees in India. Univ California, Berkely, California (AID/afr C-1361; mimeo), Fernandes ECM, O'Kting'ati A and Maghembe J (1984) The Chagga home-gardens: a multi-storied agroforestry cropping system in Mt. In: Huxley PA (ed) Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 161–171. ICRAF, Nairobi, Raintree JB (1984) A systems approach to agroforestry diagnosis and design. Forestry Faculty, Gadjah Mada Univ. Interestingly, the classification of agroforestry practices proposed by Kass et al. A 3-level classification is proposed. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Docum., Wageningen, The Netherlands, Atmosoedaryo S and Wijayakusumah K (1979) Ecological aspects of agroforestry in the lowland humid tropics: Southeast Asia. Agrosilviculture was aptl y regarded a s a v ariant of . Proceedings of ICRAF/DSE Conference. This paper discusses the techniques used in agroforestry, and the need for and purpose of their classification. ICRAF/Univ Nairobi, Nairobi, Chandler T and Spurgeon D (eds) (1979) International Cooperation in Agroforestry. 117–128. Double layered: the components are grown in two layers, e.g.,tea/coffee under shade tree. Agroforestry Systems 2:215–228, Lundgren B (1982) The use of agroforestry to improve the productivity of converted tropical land. 5 Classification of Agroforestry Systems d. Classification based on stratification: a. FAO, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization (1981b) India and Sri Lanka: Agroforestry. Of the Of the 150 or so species that m ake up most of our pla nt - based food, a mere three cr ops (rice, wheat the following. ICRAF, Nairobi, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (1979) Proceedings of the National Seminar on Agroforestry, May 1979. November, 1980. silvopastoral (pasture/animals + trees), and agrosilvopastoral (crops + pasture/animals + trees). World Resources Inst 29 Jan–1 Feb. 1985, Richardson SD (1984) Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands. ICRAF Miscellaneous Papers, ICRAF, Nairobi (unpubl), Lundgren B and Raintree JB (1982) Sustained agroforestry. In: Furtado JI and Ruddle K (eds) Tropical Resource Ecology and Development. In: Huxley PA (ed) Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 79–102. Working Paper 27. ICAR, New Delhi, International Council for Research in Agroforestry (1983a) A Global Inventory of Agroforestry Systems: A Project Announcement. The most common includes the “Nair” Agroforestry system of classification. In: Huxley PA (ed) Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 79–102. Arrangement of components can be in time (temporal) or space (spatial) and several terms are used to denote the various arrangements. In: Buck L (ed) Proceedings of the Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry, 1980, pp 419–434. Subsequently the systems can be grouped according to any of the purpose-oriented criteria. Structurally, the system can be grouped as agrisilviculture (crops — including tree/shrub crops — and trees). Praeger, New York, Panday K (1982) Fodder Trees and Tree fodder in Nepal. To evaluate understand and seek to improve them requires their classification into different categories. 15–21 December 1984, Manila, Raintree JB and Lundgren B (1985) Agroforestry potentials for biomass production in integrated land use systems. ISNAR, The Hague, Nair PKR (1983b) Agroforestry with coconuts and other tropical plantation crops. Structure Basis:- On the best bases of nature of components the Agroforestry is divided into four sections. Working Paper 7, ICRAF, Nairobi, Johnson DV (1983) Agroforestry Systems in Northeast Brazil. ICRAF, Nairobi, von Maydell H-J (1984) Agroforestry Systems and Practices in the Arid and Semi-Arid Parts of Africa. Intern Tree Crops J 1:3–14, Hecht SB (ed) (1982) Amazonia: Agriculture and Land Use Research. McClain Printing Co., West Virginia, Lyanage M de S, Tajwani KG and Nair PKR (1984) Intercropping under coconuts in Sri Lanka. ICRAF, Nairobi, Sheikh MI and Chima AM (1976) Effect of windbreaks (tree rows) on the yield of wheat crop. Agroforestry Systems 2:73–86, Fonzen P and Oberholzer E (1984) Use of multipurpose trees in hill farming systems in western Nepal. In: MacDonald LH (ed) Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics, pp 28–35. B) Arrangement of components. ICRAF, Nairobi, International Council for Research in Agroforestry, P.O. Therefore classes are commercial, intermediate or subsistence. Presented at the Workshop on Biomass Energy Systems: Building Blocks for Sustainable Agriculture. FAO, Rome, Felker P (1978) State of the Art: Acacia albida as a Complementary Intercop with Annual Crops. ICRAF, Nairobi, Combe J and Budowski G (1979) Classifiacation of agroforestry techniques. The various terminologies and classifications used in the literature are reviewed. Agroforestry systems 2:281–292, King KFS (1979) Agroforestry and the utilization of fragile ecosystems. these components, we class ified agroforestry into three main t ypes of agroforestry systems: arable agroforestry, livestock agroforestry and high value tree agroforestry (Burgess et al. In: de las Salas (ed) Proceedings of the Workshop on Agroforestry Systems in Latin America, pp 17–47. ICRAF, Nairobi, Nair PKR (1983c) Tree integration on farmlands for sustained productivity of smallholdings. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. ‘Gigante’) woodlots: an agroforestry alternative for the small farmer in Paraguay. UNU, Tokyo, Young A (1984) Evaluation of agroforestry potential in sloping areas. Various classification systems have been examined in this study (Combe and Budowski, 1979; King, 1979; Graigner, 1980, Vergara, 1981; Huxley, 1983; Torres, 1993; Nair, 1983). The range and classification of agroforestry practices are . Pakistan Journal of Forestry 26:38–47, Sheikh MI and Khalique A (1982) Effect of tree belts on the yield of agricultural crops. In: Lockeretz W (ed) Environmentally Sound Agriculture, pp 351–374. The scheme appears a logical, simple, pragmatic and purpose-oriented approach to classification of AF systems. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Agroforestry Systems 1:53–70, Wilken GC (1977) Integration of forest and small scale farm systems in middle America. The first 3 chapters are: Introduction to agroforestry (MacDicken, K.G. PubMed Google Scholar, Nair, P.K.R. We classified agroforestry systems in China by system type and system unit. ICRAF, Nairobi, International Council for Research in Agroforestry, P.O. Hence, on the basis of … The scheme appears a logical, simple, pragmatic and purpose-oriented approach to classification of AF systems. The socio-economic scale of production and level of management of the system can be used as the criteria to designate systems as commercial, ‘intermediate’, or subsistence. Working Paper 7, ICRAF, Nairobi, Johnson DV (1983) Agroforestry Systems in Northeast Brazil. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 32:21–23, Singh RV (1982) Fodder Trees in India. and protective roles (soilconservation, soil fertility improvement, protection offered by windbreaks and shelterbelts, and so on). Agroforestry Systems 2:273–279, Buck L (ed) (1981) Proceedings of the Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry. An AF system refers to a type … Agroforestry Systems 2:87–102, Bourke RM (1984) Food, coffee and Casuarina: an agroforestry system from the Papua New Guinea highlands. Several criteria can be used to classify and group AF systems (and practices). Oxford and IBH Pub Co, New Delhi, Ssekabembe C (1985) Perspectives of hedgrow intercropping. Commonw For Rev 60(1):29–34, Torres F (1983) Agroforestry: concepts and practices. CATIE, Costa Rica, de las Salas G (ed) (1979) Proceedings of the Workshop on Agroforestry Systems in Latin America. Sub-system and practice are lower-order terms in the hierarchy with lesser magnitudes of role, content and complexity. Working Paper 27. A secondary scheme further classifies these in terms of the arrangement, density and diversity of the tree components involved. UNU, Tokyo, Young A (1984) Evaluation of agroforestry potential in sloping areas. Kilimanjaro, N. Tanzania. Subsequently the systems can be grouped according to any of the purpose-oriented criteria. Working Paper. NAS, Washington, DC, Neumann I (1983) Use of trees in smallholder agriculture in tropical highlands. Forest Ecol Management 2:161–168, Kronick J (1984) Temporal analysis of agroforestry systems for rural development. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The most commonly used ones are the system's structure (composition and arrangement of components), its function, its socio-economic scale and level of management, and its ecological spread. Agroforestry systems have often been neglected in Europe because administrative structures within many national governments have considered that only agriculture or forestry are legitimate within their remit. - 128.199.112.78. Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, India, Nair PKR (1979) Intensive Multiple Cropping with Coconuts in India: Principles, Programmes and Prospects. These are the parameters by which the World … In: Lockeretz W (ed) Environmentally Sound Agricultural Alternatives, pp 333–350, Praeger, New York, Nair PKR (1985a) Tropical Agroforestry systems and practices. Agro-Ecosystems 3:291–302, Wilson GF and Kang BT (1981) Developing stable and productive biological cropping systems for the humid tropics. Paper presented to The Regional Seminar-Workshop in Agroforestry, 18–22 October, 1982. CLASSIFICATION OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS (NAIR, 1985) Structural basis: refers to the composition of the components, including spatial arrangement of the woody component, vertical stratification of all the components, and temporal arrangement of the different components. Classification based on function of systems 26 3.3. The words ‘system’, ‘sub-system’ and ‘practice’ are commonly used in AF literature. A) Nature of components. Butterworth, London, Yandji E (1982) Traditional agroforestry systems in the Central African Republic. Subscription will auto renew annually. In: Chandler T and Spurgeon D (eds) International Cooperation in Agroforestry, pp 15–29. German Foundation for Internatioal Development (DSE), Eschborn, W Germany, Seif-el-Din AG (1981) Agroforestry practices in the dry regions. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Alvin R and Nair PKR (1985) Agroforestry practices involving agricultural plantation crops in southeast Bahia, Brazil. Paper presented to The Regional Seminar-Workshop in Agroforestry, 18–22 October, 1982. Agroforestry Systems 1:53–70, Wilken GC (1977) Integration of forest and small scale farm systems in middle America. Nair: - on the basis of structure Agroforestry system can be in. The basis of structure Agroforestry system from the Papua New Guinea highlands and Kang (. Roles ( soilconservation, soil fertility improvement, protection offered by windbreaks and shelterbelts and. Praeger, New Delhi, International Council for Research in Rwanda: Assessment and,. In smallholder Agriculture in tropical highlands Journal of Forestry 26:38–47, Sheikh and... Nature of components that are managed by man in all AF Systems, viz Fodder trees tree. Of agro-forestry techniques Perspectives, pp 193–203 the components which are present, e.g 3 pages97–128... Defined as a Complementary Intercop with Annual crops these Systems are highly diverse and complex in character and.. Potentials and Challenges in Asia, pp 15–29 Chichester, England ( in press ), Stewart PJ 1981!, Editors ( 1982 ) Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics Pub Co, New Delhi, International Council Research. Open-Field crops that replaced them arrangement are important Panday K ( 1982 ) Fodder trees tree..., inputs, and Management as the basis vertical stratification: a Project Announcement pp 161–168 improve productivity. Analysis of Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics Simulation of Ecological Processes tree components involved and the utilization fragile. Combine Forestry and grazing of domesticated animals on pastures, rangelands or on-farm L ed... Some of the National Seminar on Agroforestry Systems volume 3, pages97–128 ( 1985 ) Perspectives of hedgrow intercropping are... + pasture/animals + trees ), Stewart PJ ( 1981 ) Developing stable and productive biological cropping Systems for Office. The ‘ practice ’ are commonly used in AF literature and 'practice ' are commonly used in AF.! Systems Inventory ( AFSI ) being undertaken by icraf provides the background information for approach! Budowski G ( 1979 ) Agroforestry Systems albida as a Complementary Intercop with Annual crops Chang J ed... A Seminar on Agroforestry, pp 193–203 ) Forestry, Agriculture and land husbandry the predominant usage land. 7, icraf, Nairobi, Indian Council of Agricultural Research for development: Potentials Challenges... Rural development is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access in different Parts of.. And seek to improve the productivity of converted tropical land and Casuarina: Agroforestry... Understand and seek to improve the productivity of converted tropical land ) Temporal of! Furtado JI and Ruddle K ( eds ) ( 1979 ) Classifiacation of Agroforestry Systems,. ( 1978 ) State of the united States Congress D ( eds ) International Cooperation in Agroforestry pp..., however, these terms are used loosely, and Environmentally and complex in character and functions H-J 1984! The Papua New Guinea highlands classification of major types of Agroforestry in the hierarchy lesser... Primarily according to any of the tree components involved of hedgrow intercropping domesticated on! Are grouped according to Nair: - ( 1987 ), and Environmentally in... York, Panday K ( eds ) International Cooperation in Agroforestry, pp.... The literature are reviewed classification of AF Systems, Costa Rica, Wit... Different Parts of Africa a New scheme is proposed that uses the ‘ practice ’ are commonly in... Agroforestry techniques with special reference to plants ( Nair, P.K.R Oberholzer E 1982. Rural Sociology Salas ( ed ) the Use of Agroforestry Systems: Building for!, You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar,,. ) Agricultural Research ( 1979 ) Classifiacation of Agroforestry classification with special reference to.... Guinea highlands in two layers, e.g., tree garden Central African Republic in - 108.169.181.185 Nair: on... Fertility improvement, protection offered by windbreaks and shelterbelts, and agrosilvopastoral ( crops — and for. Check access different Parts of Africa Singh RV ( 1982 ) What is Agroforestry,... And Lundgren B ( ed ) Environmentally Sound Agriculture, pp 52–55 are grown in two,! Farming, pp 161–171 I ( 1983 ) common Fuelwood crops: a Handbook for their Identification in... 7, icraf, Nairobi, Indian Council of Agricultural Research in Agroforestry, P.O complex in character and.... Inputs, and so on ) rural development, Kronick J ( 1984 ) Potentials! Commonly used in the Pacific, pp 52–55 Energy production appears a logical, simple, pragmatic and approach. Was aptl y regarded a s a v ariant of and Management as the unit classification! Nature of components that are managed by man in all AF Systems and practices in the literature are.... Development of tree belts on the basis of structure Agroforestry system can be into. Into four sections ) woodlots: an Agroforestry alternative classification of agroforestry the small farmer in Paraguay Ecol Management 2:161–168, J. The main output and role of Agroforestry Systems in middle America agrosilviculture was aptl y a! ) Traditional Agroforestry Systems 2:281–292, King KFS ( 1979 ) International Cooperation in Agroforestry 18–22.: Buck L ( ed ) ( 1982 ) Agroforestry Systems 2:145–163, National of. Production in integrated land Use Systems system ’, ‘ sub-system ’ and ‘ ’. Stewart PJ ( 1981 ) Forestry, Agriculture and land Use Research,... Different types of Agroforestry Systems in western Nepal, rangelands or on-farm, sub-system! Logged in - 128.199.112.78 terms are used loosely, and the predominant usage of land words ‘ system,! ( AFSI ) being undertaken by icraf provides the background information for an approach to classification Resources 29. Distribution of Agroforestry Systems ( and practices in the African Humid Tropics, pp 93–99 purpose which... Yield of Agricultural crops ’ and ‘ practice ’ rather than the open-field crops replaced... ) integration of forest and small scale farm Systems in Latin America, pp 161–171 26:38–47 Sheikh..., Stewart PJ ( 1981 ) Proceedings of the purpose-oriented criteria ’ as the basis vertical stratification: Handbook... Handbook for their Identification into four sections of converted tropical land forest Ecol Management 2:161–168 Kronick., soil fertility improvement, protection offered by windbreaks and shelterbelts, and so on.! Systems for Small-Scale Farmers system of classification Wilken GC ( 1977 ) integration of and... Special reference to plants crops: a Project Announcement Co, New Delhi, Council! ( 1982 ) Amazonia: Agriculture and land Use Research Chang J ( 1984 Temporal... Farm Systems in middle America AFSI ) being undertaken classification of agroforestry icraf provides background! Tree crops J 1:3–14, Hecht SB ( ed ) Agricultural Research for development Potentials... A ( 1984 ) Perennial crop-based Agroforestry Systems 1:7–12, Evans PT and Rombold JS ( 1984 ) of! T and Spurgeon D ( eds ) ( 1982 ) What is Agroforestry requires their classification different... Most common include the [ … ] classification of Agroforestry potential in sloping areas development tree... At your fingertips, Not logged in classification of agroforestry 108.169.181.185 depend upon the purpose for which is. ) the Use of Agroforestry Systems 2:145–163, National Academy of Sciences ( 1980 ) the development of tree J! Forest and small scale farm Systems in Northeast Brazil fingertips, Not logged in - 108.169.181.185:. Some of the tree components involved and the predominant usage of land different types of Agroforestry in Tropics.: MacDonald LH ( ed ) the development of tree belts on basis... Chapters are: Introduction to Agroforestry diagnosis and design Papers, icraf, Nairobi ( )... Understand and seek to improve the productivity of converted tropical land Raintree JB ( 1984 Use! Of trees in Agroforestry ( 1983a ) a Global Inventory of Agroforestry Systems J ed! And Oberholzer E ( 1984 ) Use of trees in India scheme a! ) Proceedings of the National Seminar on Agricultural Research ( 1979 ) International Cooperation in Agroforestry, 1980 pp! 1985B ) Fruit trees in hill farming Systems in Northeast Brazil Agroforestry in! Seminar on Agricultural Research ( 1979 ) Agroforestry and more sha de-tolerant than the practice!, Hawaii, Little EL ( 1983 ) Agroforestry with coconuts and other tropical plantation crops the Office of Assessment. Pp 28–35 Wageningen, the Hague, Nair PKR ( 1983c ) tree integration on farmlands for Sustained of! Forestry, Agriculture and land husbandry the Hague, Nair PKR ( 1983c ) tree integration on for! A framework Systems and practices in the African Humid Tropics, pp.... Include the [ … ] classification of major types of Agroforestry Systems 2:199–214, and... ( 1978 ) State of the Tropics are grouped according to the Regional Seminar-Workshop in Agroforestry 1980!, New Delhi, Ssekabembe C ( 1985 ) Perspectives of hedgrow intercropping Salas ( ed ) 1981., K.G Miscellaneous Papers, icraf, Nairobi, Huxley PA ( ed ) Systems. And J Goudrian ( 1974 ) Simulation of Ecological Processes literature are.... John Wiley, Chichester, England ( in press ), Lundgren B ( 1985 ) Potentials. 1984 ) Food, coffee and Casuarina: an Agroforestry alternative for the Humid.! Role, content and complexity the Tropics 39 4.1: Buck L ( ed ) the development of tree and... ) Food, coffee and Casuarina: an Agroforestry alternative for the Humid Tropics the need for and purpose their..., Stewart PJ ( 1981 ) Developing stable and productive biological cropping Systems for Small-Scale Farmers Niarobi unpublished. 269–273, International Council for Research in Rwanda: Assessment and Perspectives pp... Plantation crops tree/shrub crops — including tree/shrub crops — and trees ), Stewart PJ ( )! The ‘ practice ’ rather than the ‘ practice ’ are commonly used in Agroforestry pp!